Learning English mediated by Kahoot: Insights from the Indonesian EFL instructors

Moh. Arif Mahbub


Now, EFL pedagogical practices have gradually transformed from traditional classrooms into digital learning. Within this context, mobile devices have now been considered as an auspicious medium for future learning. This study investigated how EFL instructors from different secondary education institutions viewed the in-class use of Kahoot in English-language classrooms. To this end, they were invited to fill a 13-items web-based questionnaire covering several categories: factual, behavioral, and attitudinal. Twenty-seven (n=27) Indonesian EFL instructors in secondary education at both public and private high schools mostly located in East Java, Indonesia, voluntarily participated in this present study by completing the online survey. The results indicated that participants mostly demonstrated positive feelings toward the utilization of Kahoot in EFL classrooms. It showed that Kahoot was perceived as a promising software application to enhance the English-language learning process. To explore the effectiveness of this online game-based platform, more future-related research with large-scale participants in broader geographic regions should be carried out in this area.


Kahoot in English classroom; Indonesian EFL instructors; gamification; classroom technology

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 2412 times | PDF view : 960 times


Al-Emran, M., Elsherif, H. M., & Shaalan, K. (2016). Investigating attitudes towards the use of mobile learning in higher education. Computers in Human Behavior, 56, 93–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.11.033

Al-Hunaiyyan, A., Alhajri, R. A., & Al-Sharhan, S. (2018). Perceptions and challenges of mobile learning in Kuwait. Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, 30(2), 279–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2016.12.001

Alsswey, A., & Al-Samarraie, H. (2019). M-learning adoption in the Arab gulf countries: A systematic review of factors and challenges. Education and Information Technologies, 24(5), 3163–3176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-09923-1

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Ataeifar, F., Sadighi, F., Bagheri, M. S., & Behjat, F. (2019). Iranian female students’ perceptions of the impact of mobile-assisted instruction on their English speaking skill. Cogent Education, 6(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1662594

Attali, Y., & Arieli-Attali, M. (2015). Gamification in assessment: Do points affect test performance? Computers and Education, 83, 57–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.12.012

Baleghizadeh, S., & Shakouri, M. (2017). Investigating the relationship between teaching styles and teacher self-efficacy among some Iranian ESP university instructors. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 54(4), 394–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2015.1087329

Basak, S. K., Wotto, M., & Bélanger, P. (2018). E-learning, M-learning and D-learning: Conceptual definition and comparative analysis. E-Learning and Digital Media, 15(4), 191–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042753018785180

Baszuk, P. A., & Heath, M. L. (2020). Using Kahoot! to increase exam scores and engagement. Journal of Education for Business, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2019.1707752

Batsila, M., & Tsihouridis, C. (2018). “Let’s go… Kahooting†– Teachers’ views on C.R.S. for teaching purposes. In M. E. Auer, D. Guralnick, & I. Slmonks (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in a Digital World. The 20th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning 2017 (pp. 563–571). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73210-7

Bawa, P. (2018). Using Kahoot to inspire. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 47(3), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047239518804173

Baydas, O., & Cicek, M. (2019). The examination of the gamification process in undergraduate education: A scale development study. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 28(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2019.1580609

Berends, M. (2006). Survey methods in educational research. In J. L. Green, G. Camili, P. B. Elmore, A. Skukauskaiti, & E. Grace (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in education research (pp. 1–865). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bouchrika, I., Harrati, N., Wanick, V., & Wills, G. (2019). Exploring the impact of gamification on student engagement and involvement with e-learning systems. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1623267

Brophy, K. (2015). Gamification and mobile teaching and learning. In Y. (Aimee) Zhang (Ed.), Handbook of Mobile Teaching and Learning (pp. 91–105). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54146-9

Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. (2016). Gamification and student motivation. Interactive Learning Environments, 24(6), 1162–1175. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2014.964263

Chang, C. K., & Hsu, C. K. (2011). A mobile-assisted synchronously collaborative translation-annotation system for english as a foreign language (EFL) reading comprehension. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(2), 155–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.536952

Chen, I. J., & Chang, C. C. (2011). Content presentation modes in mobile language listening tasks: English proficiency as a moderator. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 24(5), 451–470. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2011.577749

Chen, K. T. (2016). Examining EFL instructors’ and students’ perceptions and acceptance toward M-learning in higher education. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16(4), 967–976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-016-0494-8

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). Routledge.

Crescente, M. L., & Lee, D. (2011). Critical issues of m-learning: Design models, adoption processes, and future trends. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, 28(2), 111–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/10170669.2010.548856

Criollo-C, S., & Luján-Mora, S. (2019). Mobile technologies and applications for the internet of things. In M. E. Auer & T. Tsiatsos (Eds.), Mobile Technologies and Applications for the Internet of Things (IMCL), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (Vol. 909, pp. 204–211). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11434-3

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “gamification.†In A. Lugmayr, H. Franssila, C. Safran, & I. Hammouda (Eds.), MindTrek ’11: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9–15). The Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-5347(11)60242-5

Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. (2nd ed.). Routledge.

Esteves, M., Pereira, A., Veiga, N., Vasco, R., & Veiga, A. (2017). The use of new learning technologies in higher education classroom: a case study. In M. E. Auer, D. Guralnick, & I. Simonics (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in a Digital World, International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning (Vol. 1, pp. 499–506). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73210-7

Felszeghy, S., Pasonen-Seppänen, S., Koskela, A., Nieminen, P., Härkönen, K., Paldanius, K. M. A., Gabbouj, S., Ketola, K., Hiltunen, M., Lundin, M., Haapaniemi, T., Sointu, E., Bauman, E. B., Gilbert, G. E., Morton, D., & Mahonen, A. (2019). Using online game-based platforms to improve student performance and engagement in histology teaching. BMC Medical Education, 19(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1701-0

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, Norman, E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Gani, A. F. A., Hassim, A. R. A., & Mohandas, E. S. (2016). Students’ perceptions of new web 2.0 tools’ usage in classroom instruction. In J. E. Luaran, A. S. Anaelka., & N. A. Alias (Eds.), Envisioning the Future of Online Learning (pp. 247–257). Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0954-9

Georgieva, E. S., Smrikarov, A. S., & Georgiev, T. S. (2011). Evaluation of mobile learning system. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 632–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.106

Ghorbani, N., & Ebadi, S. (2020). Exploring learners’ grammatical development in mobile assisted language learning. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1704599

Guardia, J. J., Del Olmo, J. L., Roa, I., & Berlanga, V. (2019). Innovation in the teaching-learning process: The case of Kahoot! On the Horizon, 27(1), 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1108/OTH-11-2018-0035

Hadijah, H., Pratolo, B. W., & Rondiyah, R. (2020). Interactive game “Kahoot!†as the media of students’ vocabulary. Journal on English as a Foreign Language (JEFL), 10(1), 87–105. https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v10i1.1670

Heflin, H., Shewmaker, J., & Nguyen, J. (2017). Impact of mobile technology on student attitudes, engagement, and learning. Computers and Education, 107, 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.01.006

Hou, Y. (2018). Integration of Kahoot into EFL classroom. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), 20th International Conference - HCI International 2018 (Issue 2016, pp. 404–409). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92285-0

Hsu, L. (2013). English as a foreign language learners’ perception of mobile assisted language learning: A cross-national study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(3), 197–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2011.649485

Huang, B., Hew, K. F., & Lo, C. K. (2018). Investigating the effects of gamification-enhanced flipped learning on undergraduate students’ behavioral and cognitive engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(8), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2018.1495653

Hughes, E. S., Bradford, J., & Likens, C. (2018). Facilitating collaboration, communication, and critical thinking skills in physical therapy education through technology-enhanced instruction: A case study. TechTrends, 62(3), 296–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0259-8

Hwang, W. Y., Shih, T. K., Ma, Z. H., Shadiev, R., & Chen, S. Y. (2015). Evaluating listening and speaking skills in a mobile game-based learning environment with situational contexts. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 639–657. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2015.1016438

Ismail, M. A., Ahmad, A., Mohammad, J. A., Fakri, N. M. R. M., Nor, M. Z. M., & Pa, M. N. M. (2019). Using Kahoot! as a formative assessment tool in medical education: A phenomenological study. BMC Medical Education, 19, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1658-z

Jones, S. M., Katyal, P., Xie, X., Nicolas, M. P., Leung, E. M., Noland, D. M., & Montclare, J. K. (2019). A “KAHOOT!†approach: The effectiveness of game-based learning for an advanced placement Biology class. Simulation and Gaming, 50(6), 832–847. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878119882048

Kinder, F. D. A., & Kurz, J. M. (2018). Gaming strategies in Nursing education. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 13(4), 212–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2018.05.001

Klimova, B., & Kacetl, J. (2018). Computer game-based foreign language learning: Its benefits and limitations. In S. K. S. Cheung, J. Lam, K. C. Li, O. Au, W. W. K. Ma, & W. S. Ho (Eds.), Technology in Education. Innovative Solutions and Practices, ICTE 2018. (pp. 26–34). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0008-0

Koivisto, J., & Hamari, J. (2014). Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.007

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Viberg, O. (2018). Mobile collaborative language learning: State of the art. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(2), 207–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12580

Kumar, B. A., & Chand, S. S. (2019). Mobile learning adoption: A systematic review. Education and Information Technologies, 24(1), 471–487. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9783-6

Lauermann, V., & Barbosa, D. N. F. (2018). Digital technologies applied to textual reading and understanding in English: A practical approach using Kahoot. In L. Uden, D. Liberona, & J. Ristvej (Eds.), 7th International Workshop, Learning Technology for Education Challenges (LTEC) (pp. 70–79). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-95522-3

Lee, C. C., Hao, Y., Lee, K. S., Sim, S. C., & Huang, C. C. (2019). Investigation of the effects of an online instant response system on students in a middle school of a rural area. Computers in Human Behavior, 95, 217–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.034

Lee, C., Yeung, A. S., & Ip, T. (2016). Use of computer technology for English language learning: Do learning styles, gender, and age matter? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(5), 1033–1049. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2016.1140655

Licorish, S. A., Owen, H. E., Daniel, B., & George, J. L. (2018). Students’ perception of Kahoot!’s influence on teaching and learning. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learinng, 13(9), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-018-0078-8

Lin, C.-C., Lin, V., Liu, G.-Z., Kou, X., Kulikova, A., & Lin, W. (2019). Mobile-assisted reading development: A review from the Activity Theory perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2019.1594919

Lin, J.-J., & Lin, H. (2019). Mobile-assisted ESL/EFL vocabulary Learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(8), 878–919. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1541359

Liu, T. Y., & Chu, Y. L. (2010). Using ubiquitous games in an English listening and speaking course: Impact on learning outcomes and motivation. Computers and Education, 55(2), 630–643. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.023

Luís, A. R. (2018). Perceptions of the educational benefits of mobile devices in language teaching and learning. In R. Ãlvaro, H. Adeli, L. P. Reis, & S. Costanzo (Eds.), World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (Vol. 1, pp. 1406–1415). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77712-2

Ma, Q. (2017). A multi-case study of university students’ language-learning experience mediated by mobile technologies: A socio-cultural perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(3–4), 183–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1301957

Mahdi, H. S. (2017). Effectiveness of mobile devices on vocabulary learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 56(1), 134–154. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633117698826

Manfreda, K. L., & Vehovar, V. (2008). Internet survey. In E. D. de Leeuw, J. J. Hox, & D. A. Dillman (Eds.), International Handbook of Survey Methodology (pp. 264–284). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Taylor & Francis Group.

Martins, E. R., Geraldes, W. B., Afonseca, U. R., & Gouveia, L. M. B. (2019). Using Kahoot as a learning tool. In I. Ramos, R. Quaresma, P. Silva, & T. Oliveira (Eds.), Information Systems for Industry 4.0. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation (pp. 161–169). Springer Nature Switzerland AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14850-8_11

Mu, H., & Paparas, D. (2015). Incorporating the advantages of clickers and mobile devices to teach Economics to non-economists. Cogent Economics and Finance, 3(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2015.1099802

Murphy, M. P. A. (2018). “Blending†Docent Learning: Using Google Forms Quizzes to Increase Efficiency in Interpreter Education at Fort Henry. Journal of Museum Education, 43(1), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/10598650.2017.1396435

Ou-Yang, F. C., & Wu, W. C. V. (2017). Using mixed-modality vocabulary learning on mobile devices: Design and evaluation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(8), 1043–1069. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633116648170

Pereira, R. C. S., Dinis, M. A. P., & Gouveia, L. Bo. (2019). The use of mobile devices in environmental education. In W. L. Filho, U. Tortato, & F. Frankenberger (Eds.), Universities and Sustainable Communities: Meeting the Goals of the Agenda 2030. World Sustainability Series. (pp. 643–649). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.18844/gjhss.v3i3.1521

Persico, D., Passarelli, M., Dagnino, F., Manganello, F., Earp, J., & Pozzi, F. (2019). Games and learning: Potential and limitations from the players’ point of view. In A. Liapis, G. N. Yannakakis, M. Gentile, & M. Ninaus (Eds.), 8th International Conference on Games and Learning Alliance (pp. 134–145). Springer Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11548-7

Plump, C. M., & LaRosa, J. (2017). Using Kahoot! in the classroom to create engagement and active learning: A game-based technology solution for elearning novices. Management Teaching Review, 2(2), 151–158. https://doi.org/10.1177/2379298116689783

Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital native and digital immigrant part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120110424816

Prensky, M. (2001b). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 2: Do they really think differently? On the Horizon, 9(6), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/59.4.194

Rahman, R. A., Ahmad, S., & Hashim, U. R. (2018). The effectiveness of gamification technique for higher education students engagement in polytechnic Muadzam Shah Pahang, Malaysia. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(41), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-018-0123-0

Şad, S. N., & Göktaş, Ö. (2014). Preservice teachers’ perceptions about using mobile phones and laptops in education as mobile learning tools. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(4), 606–618. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12064

Sailer, M., & Homner, L. (2020). The gamification of learning: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32, 77–112. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09498-w

Tan, C., & Liu, M. (2016). Using ICT in teaching the Chinese language: Practices and reflections from Singapore. In K. Soh (Ed.), Teaching Chinese Language in Singapore: Retrospect and Challenges (pp. 45–65). Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0123-9_10

Tsihouridis, C., Vavougios, D., & Ioannidis, G. S. (2018). Assessing the learning process playing with Kahoot – A study with upper secondary school pupils learning electrical circuits. In M. E. Auer, D. Guralnick, & I. Simonics (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in a Digital World. ICL 2017. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (pp. 602–612). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73210-7

Uz Bilgin, C., & Tokel, S. T. (2019). Facilitating contextual vocabulary learning in a mobile-supported situated learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(4), 930–953. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633118779397

Vu, P. H., & Hoffman, J. (2011). Using online surveys in Vietnam: An exploratory study. International Journal of Market Research, 53(1), 41–62. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJMR-53-1-041-062

Wang, A. I. (2015). The wear out effect of a game-based student response system. Computers and Education, 82, 217–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.11.004

Wang, A. I., & Lieberoth, A. (2016). The effect of points and audio on concentration, engagement, enjoyment, learning, motivation, and classroom dynamics using Kahoot! In T. Connolly & L. Boyle (Eds.), The 10th European Conference of Game based Learning (Issue October, pp. 737–748). Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited.

Wang, A. I., & Tahir, R. (2020). The effect of using Kahoot! for learning – A literature review. Computers and Education, 149, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103818

Wang, J.-T., Hung, L.-C., Hsieh, H.-M., Tsai, J.-T., & Lin, I.-H. (2012). Computer technology integration and multimedia application for teacher professional development: The use of instructional technology in the classroom settings. In G. Lee (Ed.), IERI Procedia (Vol. 2, pp. 616–622). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ieri.2012.06.143

Yıldırım, İ., & Şen, S. (2019). The effects of gamification on students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis study. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2019.1636089

Zarzycka-piskorz, E. (2016). Kahoot it or not? Can games be motivating in learning grammar? Teaching English with Technology, 16(3), 17–36. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1135685

Zhonggen, Y., Ying, Z., Zhichun, Y., & Wentao, C. (2019). Student satisfaction, learning outcomes, and cognitive loads with a mobile learning platform. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(4), 323–341. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1517093

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v10i2.1917

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 2412 times
PDF - 960 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 THE AUTHOR(S)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

JEFL is published by Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya in collaboration with the Association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (ELITE Association) in Indonesia [MoU manuscript].

Editor and Administration Address:

Department of English Language EducationFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya, Jalan G. Obos Komplek Islamic Centre Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Postal Code 73111, Email: jefl@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, Website: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl

OAI address of JEFL is available at http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl/oai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

stats View My Stats

Flag Counter