Examining EFL students' ISEB and OSEL amidst internet-based online learning environment during COVID-19 pandemic

Margareta Lisa Merrynda, Ive Emaliana, Hamamah Hamamah


Students are becoming adapted to online self-regulated learning (hereafter, OSEL), which is closely related to students' internet-specific epistemic beliefs (hereafter, ISEB), as the internet became an important platform for the teaching process during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study is aimed at researching the relationship between OSEL and ISEB among EFL students and after establishing the prediction. Data were collected through the questionnaires using the ISEB questionnaire (Kammerer et al., 2015) and the OSEL questionnaire (Zheng et al., 2016). Approximately 140 undergraduate students enrolled in the seventh semester of the English language education study program at a reputable university in Malang, Indonesia involved in this study. Interviews were then conducted to confirm the findings obtained from the questionnaires. The findings showed a substantial correlation between EFL students' ISEB and OSEL, with a correlation coefficient .555 and p-value .000. It also predicted that the higher EFL students' ISEB, the higher their OSEL too. The interview results elucidated support for this prediction. Students' ISEB and OSEL can help them solve their academic problems. Therefore, some pedagogical implications are described to promote better English learning, which uses the internet as one of the media of instruction.


EFL students; internet-specific epistemic beliefs (ISEB); online learning; online self-regulated learning (OSEL)

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 181 times | PDF view : 68 times


Alpaslan, M. M., Yalvac, B., & Willson, V. (2017). A meta analytical review of the relationship between personal epistemology and self-regulated learning. Turkish Journal of Education, July, 48–58. https://doi.org/10.19128/turje.287472

Atmojo, S. E., Muhtarom, T., & Lukitoaji, B. D. (2020). The level of self-regulated learning and self-awareness in science learning in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(4), 512–520. https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v9i4.25544

Çevik, Y. D. (2015). Predicting college students’ online information searching strategies based on epistemological, motivational, decision-related, and demographic variables. Computers and Education, 90, 54–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.09.002

Cheng, K. H., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). The role of internet-specific epistemic beliefs and self-regulation in high school students’ online academic help seeking: a structural equation modeling analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 48(4), 469–489. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.48.4.d

Cho, M. H., & Heron, M. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning: the role of motivation, emotion, and use of learning strategies in students’ learning experiences in a self-paced online mathematics course. Distance Education, 36(1), 80–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2015.1019963

Fraser, S., Moore, D., Waling, A., & Farrugia, A. (2021). Making epistemic citizens: young people and the search for reliable and credible sexual health information. Social Science and Medicine, 276, 113817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113817

Kammerer, Y., Amann, D. G., & Gerjets, P. (2015). When adults without university education search the Internet for health information: the roles of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs and a source evaluation intervention. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 297–309.

Kartika, H. D. (2015). A learner’s self-regulated learning in writing. IJEE (Indonesian Journal of English Education), 2(2), 120–131. https://doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3085

Ladd, D. R., Roberts, S. G., & Dediu, D. (2015). Correlational studies in typological and historical linguistics. Annu. Rev. Linguist., 1(1), 221-241.

Laksana, D. N. L. (2021). Implementation of online learning in the pandemic COVID-19: student perception in areas with minimum internet access. Journal of Education Technology, 4(4), 502-509. http://dx.doi.org/10.23887/jet.v4i4.29314

Lee, W. C., Chiu, Y. L., Liang, J. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2014). Exploring the structural relationships between high school students’ internet-specific epistemic beliefs and their utilization of online academic help seeking. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 391–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.069

Lee, Y. H. (2018). Internet-based epistemic beliefs, engagement in online activities, and intention for constructivist ICT integration among pre-service teachers. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5), 120–134. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3747

Limoodehi, R. N., & Tahriri, A. (2014). The relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies of male and female EFL learners across years of study. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 3(6), 7–21. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.3n.6p.7

Mustofa, R. F., Nabiila, A., & Suharsono, S. (2019). Correlation of learning motivation with self regulated learning at SMA Negeri 1 Tasikmalaya city. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(6), 647–650. https://doi.org/10.29103/ijevs.v1i6.1750

Prastikawati, E. F., Wiyaka, W., & Adi, A. P. K. (2020). Online backchannel as a formative assessment in improving writing skills. Journal on English as a Foreign Language, 10(2), 359-384. https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v10i2.2044

Puspitasari, I., Emaliana, I., Lailiyah, N., Lintangsari, A., & Soewarso, P. (2019). Interweaving EFL learners’ speaking, reading, writing strategies and epistemic beliefs to language achievement through e-learning. In Proceedings of First International Conference on Advances in Education, Humanities, and Language, ICEL 2019 (pp. 5-10), Malang, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-3-2019.2284957

Rahmiati, I. I, & Emaliana, I. (2019). EFL students' online learning: epistemic beliefs determine learning strategies. EDUCAFL: Journal of Education of English as a Foreign Language, 2(2), 87-97.

Rahmiati, I., Emaliana, I., Khoirunnisa, R., Ju, S., & Adi, S. (2019). EFL epistemic beliefs, writing apprehension, writing strategies, writing performance: exploring possible relationships. In Proceedings of First International Conference on Advances in Education, Humanities, and Language, ICEL 2019. Malang, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-3-2019.2284928

Rochmah, E., & Abdulmajid, N. W. (2018). Self Regulated learning strategy in elementary school. Self Regulated Learning Strategy in Elementary School, 2(1), 167–173. https://doi.org/10.31002/ijel.v2i1.938

Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002864

Simbolon, N. E. (2021). EFL students’ perceptions of blended learning in English language course: learning experience and engagement. Journal on English as a Foreign Language, 11(1), 152-174. https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v11i1.2518

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273-1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

Trevors, G., Feyzi-Behnagh, R., Azevedo, R., & Bouchet, F. (2016). Self-regulated learning processes vary as a function of epistemic beliefs and contexts: Mixed method evidence from eye tracking and concurrent and retrospective reports. Learning and Instruction, 42, 31–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.11.003

Wijaya, T. T., Ying, Z., & Suan, L. (2020). Gender and self regulated learning during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(3), 725–732. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v4i3.422

Zheng, C., Liang, J. C., Yang, Y. F., & Tsai, C. C. (2016). The relationship between Chinese university students’ conceptions of language learning and their online self-regulation. System, 57, 66–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.01.005

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v12i1.3150


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 THE AUTHOR(S)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

JEFL is published by Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya in collaboration with the Association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (ELITE Association) in Indonesia [MoU manuscript].

Editor and Administration Address:

Department of English Language EducationFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya, Jalan G. Obos Komplek Islamic Centre Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Postal Code 73111, Email: jefl@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, Website: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl

OAI address of JEFL is available at http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl/oai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

stats View My Stats

Flag Counter