Portraying EFL teacher's questioning strategies and practices: the case of a vocational school in Indonesia

Nurti Rahayu, Dwi Sloria Suharti


Although many studies have explored teacher questioning strategies (TQS) in EFL classrooms, only some studies have been conducted in EFL online classes in a vocational high school context. This study aims to shed the EFL online classroom practices regarding using first language and teacher's questioning strategy. To this end, a qualitative case study was conducted at one public vocational school in Karawang, West Java, Indonesia. Data were collected through Zoom recordings for four sessions and classroom observation. Additionally, follow-up interviews were conducted after the classes. The data were analysed with thematic analysis. The findings revealed bilingual classrooms with teachers adopting the first language to build rapport, ice-breaking, and grammar explanation. The teachers also adopted various TQS: rephrasing, repetition, simplification, and decomposition. The findings confirm the roles of teachers' questioning strategies to improve students' engagement. This engagement contributes to students' understanding, resulting in enhanced learning effectiveness. Therefore, teachers need to strengthen their awareness of their questioning abilities to optimise the teaching and learning experience in the classroom.


classroom discourse analysis; EFL teacher; questioning strategies; verbal responses; vocational school

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 106 times | PDF view : 57 times


Al-Khresheh, M. (2023). Virtual classrooms engagement among Jordanian EFL students during the pandemic of COVID-19 period. Cogent Education, 10(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2023.2188989

Astrid, A., Amrina, R. D., Desvitasari, D., Fitriani, U., & Shahab, A. (2019). The power of questioning: teacher’s questioning strategies in the EFL classrooms. Indonesian Research Journal in Education |IRJE|, 3(1), 91–106. https://doi.org/10.22437/irje.v3i1.6601

Astutik, I., Indriani, N., & Nurkamilah, N. (2021). Questioning strategies in EFL classroom: the teacher’s perceptions. TEFLA Journal (Teaching English as Foreign Language and Applied Linguistic Journal), 3(2), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.35747/tefla.v3i2.827

Boothe, D. (2022). The impact of the COVID pandemic on online education for diverse English language learners. Education and New Developments, (2), 363–366. https://doi.org/10.36315/2022v2end081

Campa, J., & Nassaji, H. (2009). The amount, purpose, and reasons for using L1 in L2 classrooms. Foreign Language Annals, 42, 742-759. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2009.01052.x

Chin, C. (2006). Classroom interaction in science: teacher questioning and feedback to students’ responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315–1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690600621100

Chin, C., & Osborne, J. (2008). Students' questions: a potential resource for teaching and learning science. Studies in Science Education, 44(1), 1–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057260701828101

Churiyah, M., Sholikhan, S., Filianti, F., & Sakdiyyah, D. A. (2020). Indonesia education readiness conducting distance learning in COVID-19 pandemic situation. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 7(6), 491-507. https://doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v7i6.1833

Cirlot, A. R., (2023). Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on teaching and learning business English: face-to-face, online or both? Observatory: Australian and Transnational Studies Centre, University of Barcelona, Spain, Coolabah (33), 42–57. https://doi.org/10.1344/co20223342-57

Cohen, J., & Goldhaber, D. (2016). Building a more complete understanding of teacher evaluation using classroom observations. Educational Researcher, 45(6), 378–387. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16659442

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Education.

Dwiyanti, K. E., Pratama, I. P. Y., & Manik, N. P. I. M. C. (2020). Online learning readiness of junior high school students in Denpasar. Indonesian Journal of English Education, 7(2), 172–188. https://doi.org/10.17773/ijee.v7i2.17773

Demir Kaymak, Z., & Horzum, M. B. (2013). Relationship between online learning readiness and structure and interaction of online learning students. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(3), 1792–1797. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2013.3.1580

Dos, B., Bay, E., Aslansoy, C., Tiryaki, B., Çetin, N., & Duman, C. (2016). An analysis of teachers' questioning strategies. Educational Research Review, 11(22), 2065–2078. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2016.3014

Eliyasun, Rosnija, E., & Salam, U. (2018). Improving student’ speaking ability through guided questions. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 7(1), 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/jppk.v7i1.23769

English First. (2019). English first: English proficiency index 2019. www.ef.com/epiwww.ef.com/epiwww.efset.org%0Awww.ef.com/epi

Etemadzadeh, A., Seifi, S., & Far, H. R. (2013). The role of questioning technique in developing thinking skills: the ongoing effect on writing skill. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 1024–1031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.01.154

Fitriati, S. W., Isfara, G. A. V., & Trisanti, N. (2017). Teachers’ questioning strategies to elicit students’ verbal responses in EFL classes at a secondary school. English Review: Journal of English Education, 5(2), 217–226. https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v5i2.537

Hadiani, S. N. (2014). Teacher’s questioning strategies in classroom interaction (a case study) [Undergraduate Thesis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia]. http://repository.upi.edu/11469/

Hamiloglue, K., & Temiz, G. (2011). The impact of teacher questions on student learning in EFL. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 2(2), 1–8. https://www.ajindex.com/dosyalar/makale/acarindex-1423906084.pdf

Hariri, K. A. (2015). Using L1 in teaching English to advanced students. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(6), 220–223. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.6p.220

Hatch, E., & Lazaraton, A. (1991). Design and statistics for applied linguistics: the research manual. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Heritage, M., & Heritage, J. (2013). Teacher questioning: the epicenter of instruction and assessment. Applied Measurement in Education, 26(3), 176–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957347.2013.793190

Hill, J. B. (2016). Questioning techniques: a study of instructional practice. Peabody Journal of Education, 91(5), 660–671. https://doi.org/10.1080/0161956X.2016.1227190

Howe, C., & Abedin, M. (2013). Classroom dialogue: a systematic review across four decades of research. Cambridge Journal of Education, 43(3), 325–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2013.786024

Howe, C., Hennessy, S., Mercer, N., Vrikki, M., & Wheatley, L. (2019). Teacher–student dialogue during classroom teaching: does it really impact on student outcomes? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(4–5), 462–512. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2019.1573730

Inayati, N., & Waloyo, A. A. (2022). The influence of Quizziz-online gamification on learning engagement and outcomes in online English language teaching. Journal on English as a Foreign Language, 12(2), 249–271. https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v12i2.3546

Ingram, J., & Elliott, V. (2016). A critical analysis of the role of wait time in classroom interactions and the effects on student and teacher interactional behaviours. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46(1), 37–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2015.1009365

Jones, A. H. (1966). Dialogue in the classroom. Learning for Living, 5(3), 24–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00239706608557088

Junus, K., Santoso, H. B., Putra, P. O. H., Gandhi, A., & Siswantining, T. (2021). Lecturer readiness for online classes during the pandemic: a survey research. Education Sciences, 11(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030139

Kaymak, Z. D., & Horzum, M. B. (2013). Relationship between online learning readiness and structure and interaction of online learning students. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(3), 1792–1797. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2013.3.1580

Khonamri, F. (2017). Judicious use of L1: a sociocultural investigation of teachers’ use of L1 in L2 classrooms. International Journal of Education, 10(1), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.17509/ije.v10i1.7646

Kirkpatrick, A. (2010). English as a lingua franca in ASEAN: a multilingual model. Hong Kong University Press. https://doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789888028795.001.0001

Kornbluh, M. (2015). Combatting challenges to establishing trustworthiness in qualitative research. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 12(4), 397–414. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2015.1021941

Meng, J., Zhao, T., & Chattouphonexay, A. (2012). Teacher questions in a content-based classroom for EFL young learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(12), 2603–2610. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.2.12.2603-2610

Milawati, M., & Suryati, N. (2019). EFL teacher’s oral questioning: are her questions and strategies effective? Dinamika Ilmu, 19(1), 37–55. https://doi.org/10.21093/di.v19i1.1545

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook (3rd ed.). Sage Publication Inc. http://library1.nida.ac.th/termpaper6/sd/2554/19755.pdf

Nashruddin, N., & Ningtyas, P. R. (2020). English as foreign language (EFL) teacher’s questioning strategies in classroom interaction. Utamax: Journal of Ultimate Research and Trends in Education, 2(1), 5–11. https://doi.org/10.31849/utamax.v2i1.3720

Naz, A., Khan, W., Khan, Q., Daraz, U., & Lauderdale, F. (2013). Teacher’s questioning effects on students communication in classroom performance. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(7), 148–159. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/5292

Neeley, T. (2019). The language of global success. In The Language of Global Success. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvc771v3

Nuryani, T.S., Tarjana, S. S., & Hersulastuti (2018). Teachers’ questioning strategies in an English classroom. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(11), 156–162. https://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.11.2018.p8322

O’Leary, M. (2013). Classroom observation: a guide to the effective observation of teaching and learning (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203119730

Oraif, I., & Elyas, T. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on learning: investigating EFL learners’ engagement in online courses in Saudi Arabia. Education Sciences, 11(3), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030099

Pardede, P. (2018). Use of mother tongue in EFL classes of secondary schools in Jabodebek: students’ and teachers’ perception. Journal of English Teaching, 4(2), 62–80. https://doi.org/10.33541/jet.v4i2.831

Pramadanti, R. (2022). Improving English learning outcomes with learning interests, learning motivation, through learning activities learners in the Covid-19 pandemic. Formosa Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(3), 687-708. https://doi.org/10.55927/fjmr.v1i3.784

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (4th ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/asi/qualitative-research-evaluation-methods/book232962

Reflianto, Setyosari, P., Kuswandi, D., & Widiati, U. (2022). English teachers’ competency in flipped learning: question level and questioning strategy in reading comprehension. International Journal of Instruction, 15(1), 965–984. https://doi.org/10.29333/iji.2022.15155a

Bensaci, C., & Remichi, M. (2021). An exploration of EFL teacher’s questioning strategies “Simplification and Repetition”: the case of first and second year LMD teachers of English, University of Jijel [Dissertation, University of Mohamed Seddik Ben Yahia. Jijel]. http://dspace.univ-jijel.dz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/12017/420.545.pdf

Renandya, W. A., Hamied, F. A., & Nurkamto, J. (2018). English language proficiency in Indonesia: issues and prospects. The Journal of Asia Tefl, 15(3), 618–629. https://doi.org/10.18823/asiatefl.2018.

Resmini, S. (2019). EFL students’ perception towards the use of Bahasa Indonesia in an English classroom. ELTIN JOURNAL, Journal of English Language Teaching in Indonesia, 7(1), 12–22. https://doi.org/10.22460/eltin.v7i1.p12-22

Sali, P. (2014). An analysis of the teachers’ use of L1 in Turkish EFL classrooms. System, 42(1), 308–318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.12.021

Salmon, A. K., & Barrera, M. X. (2021). Intentional questioning to promote thinking and learning. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 40(February), 100822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100822

Sano, M. (2014). Critical thinking skills and teachers’ questioning behavior in a Japanese University EFL context [M.A. Thesis, Soka University]. https://www.soka.ac.jp/files/en/20200626_222331.pdf

Sepulveda-Escobar, P., & Morrison, A. (2020). Online teaching placement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile: challenges and opportunities. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 587–607. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1820981

Smart, J. B., & Marshall, J. C. (2013). Interactions between classroom discourse, teacher questioning, and student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 24(2), 249–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-012-9297-9

Sukyadi, D. (2023). The use of L1 in students’ English learning materials. Asian Englishes, 25(2), 275–289. https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2023.2216865

Suryati, N. (2015). Classroom interaction strategies employed by English teachers at lower secondary schools. TEFLIN Journal, 26(2), 247–264. https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v26i2/247-264

Syafryadin, Suherdi, D., Nadya, N. L., Harahap, A., & Astrid, A. (2022). Teacher readiness and challenges in creating learner autonomy in ICT-based English learning activities. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(3), 708–717. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v11i3.34667

Tümen-Akyildiz, S., Çelik, V., & Ahmed, K. H. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on EFL classes through the lenses of secondary learners. Shanlax International Journal of Education, 9(4), 389-406. https://doi.org/10.34293/education.v9i4.4210

Van Canh, L., & Renandya, W. A. (2017). Teachers’ English proficiency and classroom language use: a conversation analysis study. RELC Journal, 48(1), 67–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217690935

Wahyudi, D. (2017). The use of questioning technique to enhance students’ speaking ability. Indonesian Journal of Integrated English Language Teaching, 3(1), 93–118. https://doi.org/10.24014/ijielt.v3i1.3971

Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2016). Quality questioning: research-based practice to engage every learner (2nd ed.). Corwin Press. A SAGE Publishing Company. https://resources.corwin.com/walshquestioning

Wang, M. (2022). Using L1 in L2 classroom. Research and Advances in Education, 1(6), 45–49. https://doi.org/10.56397/rae.2022.12.06

Wu, K. Y. (1993). Classroom interaction and teacher questions revisited. RELC Journal, 24(2), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368829302400203

Yang, H. (2017). A research on the effective questioning strategies in class. Science Journal of Education, 5(4), 158-163. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjedu.20170504.16

Yasid, M., Munir, A., & Retnaningdiyah, P. (2021). Teachers questioning strategies in achieving students speaking competence in English classroom. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), 7(1), 103-116. https://doi.org/10.24252/Eternal.V71.2021.A8

Yavuz, F. (2012). The attitudes of English teachers about the use of L1 in the teaching of L2. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4339-4344.

Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: design and methods (6th ed.). COSMOS Corporation. SAGE Publications, Inc. https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/asi/case-study-research-and-applications/book250150

Zein, S. (2019). English, multilingualism and globalisation in Indonesia. English Today, 35(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026607841800010X

Zulfikar, Z. (2018). Rethinking the use of L1 in L2 classroom. Englisia Journal, 6(1), 43–51. https://doi.org/10.22373/ej.v6i1.2514

Zulfikar, T., Syahabuddin, K., Maulidia, K., Emawati, & Amiruddin. (2022). Looking inside an EFL classroom: promoting productive learning through teachers’ questioning strategies. Studies in English Language and Education, 9(3), 1019–1040. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v9i3.26072

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v13i2.6280

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 106 times
PDF - 57 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 THE AUTHOR(S)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

JEFL is published by Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya in collaboration with the Association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (ELITE Association) in Indonesia [MoU manuscript].

Editor and Administration Address:

Department of English Language EducationFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya, Jalan G. Obos Komplek Islamic Centre Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Postal Code 73111, Email: jefl@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, Website: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl

OAI address of JEFL is available at http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl/oai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

stats View My Stats

Flag Counter