Writing strategies by beginning authors of academic genre

Abdul Syahid


Aimed at identifying what writing strategies four beginning authors used and examining how these strategies facilitated their writings, a collective case study describing and comparing the beginning authors was carried out to provide insights into the issue. The authors were teachers of English in English departments at four Indonesian universities, and were selected on the basis of a recommendation by the editor of some books in which their written products were published. To gain a far better understanding of the cases, two data forms (questionnaires and interview notes) were collected. The data gathered were repeatedly examined in order to discover some reoccurring patterns. The inductive process delineated the strategies used by the participants when dealing with academic writing. The results show that, in order of priority, the writing strategies employed in their initial writing careers were social, affective, compensation, and cognitive ones. This study contributes to the knowledge of social or contextual factors in writing English academic papers by illustrating which strategies were used and how in order to cope with the writing process. It also suggests writing strategies be adopted by future authors and built in the classes of English as a foreign language.


second/foreign language writing; academic writing; academic genre; writing strategies

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 952 times | PDF view : 466 times


Alwasilah, A. C. (2010). Lamenting language courses in the undergraduate curriculum. 1–5. Leksika, 4(2), 1–5.

Atkinson, D. (2018). Theory in second language writing. In J. I. Liontas, T. International Association, & M. DelliCarpini (Eds.), The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–6). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0524

Barton, D., & McCulloch, S. (2018). Negotiating tensions around new forms of academic writing. Discourse, Context & Media, 24, 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2018.01.006

Belcher, D. D. (2006). English for specific purposes: Teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in worlds of work, study, and everyday life. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 133. https://doi.org/10.2307/40264514

British Council. (2013). The English effect. Manchester: British Council.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Bruce, I. (2010). Academic writing and genre: A systematic analysis. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Cahyono, B. Y., & Widiati, U. (2011). The teaching of writing. In B. Y. Cahyono (Ed.), The teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia (pp. 69–85). Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Casanave, C. P. (2002). Writing games: Multicultural case studies of academic literacy practices in higher education. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crystal, D. (2012). English as a global language (Canto Classics edition). Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cumming, A. (2001). Learning to write in a second language: Two decades of research. International Journal of English Studies, 1(2), 1–23.

Cummins, J., & Davison, C. (2007). Preface. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International Handbook of English Language Teaching (pp. xxi–xxv). New York: Springer.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford: OUP Oxford.

Duff, P. (2008). Case study research in applied linguistics. Taylor & Francis.

Eckstein, G., & Ferris, D. (2018). Comparing L1 and L2 texts and writers in first-year composition. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 137–162. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.376

Gaillet, L. L., & Guglielmo, L. (2014). Understanding academic genre. In L. L. Gaillet & L. Guglielmo (Eds.), Scholarly publication in a changing academic landscape: models for success (First edition, pp. 35–49). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hyland, K. (2002). Authority and invisibility. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(8), 1091–1112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00035-8

Hyland, K. (2009a). Academic discourse: English in a global context. London ; New York: Continuum.

Hyland, K. (2009b). Teaching and researching writing (2nd ed.). Harlow: Longman.

Hyland, K. (2016). Methods and methodologies in second language writing research. System, 59, 116–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.05.002

Jun, Z. (2008). A comprehensive review of studies on second language writing. HKBU Papers in Applied Language Studies, 12, 89–123.

Lauder, A. (2008). The status and function of English in Indonesia: A review of key factors. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 12(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.7454/mssh.v12i1.128

Leki, I., Cumming, A. H., & Silva, T. J. (2008). A synthesis of research on second language writing in English. New York: Routledge.

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2016). Second language research: Methodology and design (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Mirahayuni, N. K. (2002). Investigating generic structure of English research articles: Writing strategy differences between English and Indonesian writers. TEFLIN Journal, 13(1), 22–57. https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v13i1/22-57

Mu, C., & Carrington, S. (2007). An investigation of three Chinese students’ English writing strategies. TESL-EJ, 11(1), 1–23.

Nguyen, T. N. (2009). EFL learners in Vietnam: An investigation of writing strategies (Thesis). Auckland University of Technology. Retrieved from http://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/handle/10292/751

Norris, C. B. (2016). Academic writing in English. Helsinki: Language Services University of Helsinki.

Ondrusek, A. L. (2012). What the research reveals about graduate students’ writing skills: A literature review. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 53(3), 176–188.

Paltridge, B. (2018). Graduate student writing. In J. I. Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–6). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0516

Phakiti, A., & Li, L. (2011). General academic difficulties and reading and writing difficulties among Asian ESL postgraduate students in TESOL at an Australian university. RELC Journal, 42(3), 227–264. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688211421417

Prijambodo, V. L. (2009). The learning experience in EFL writing of an Indonesian writer: A case study on Budi Darma. (Dissertation). State University of Malang, Malang. Retrieved from http://karya-ilmiah.um.ac.id/index.php/disertasi/article/view/2545

Riazi, M., Shi, L., & Haggerty, J. (2018). Analysis of the empirical research in the journal of second language writing at its 25th year (1992–2016). Journal of Second Language Writing, 41, 41–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2018.07.002

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (2010). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics (4th ed.). Harlow: Longman.

Sasaki, M. (2000). Toward an empirical model of EFL writing processes: An exploratory study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 259–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00028-X

Sun, Y.-C., & Chang, Y. (2012). Blogging to learn: Becoming EFL academic writers through collaborative dialogues. Language Learning & Technology, 16(1), 43–61. http://dx.doi.org/10125/44274

Tillema, M., Van den Bergh, H., Rijlaarsdam, G., & Sanders, T. (2013). Quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 essays: A rating procedure with bilingual raters and L1 and L2 benchmark essays. Language Testing, 30(1), 71–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532212442647

Warschauer, M. (2002). Languages.com: The Internet and linguistic pluralism. In I. Snyder (Ed.), Silicon literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age. London: Routledge.

Xinghua, L. (2010). An investigation of Chinese university EFL learners’ knowledge about writing. Language Studies Working Papers, University of Reading, 2, 51–63.

Yingli, W. (2012). A descriptional study on differences in L1 and L2 academic writing. International Journal of English and Literature, 3(5). https://doi.org/10.5897/IJEL11.118

Yoon, H. (2008). More than a linguistic reference: The influence of corpus technology on L2 academic writing. Language Learning & Technology, 12(2), 31–48. http://dx.doi.org/10125/44142

Zabihi, R. (2018). The role of cognitive and affective factors in measures of L2 writing. Written Communication, 35(1), 32–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088317735836

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23971/jefl.v9i1.952


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Journal on English as a Foreign Language

License URL: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl

Journal on English as a Foreign Language is published by Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya in collaboration with the Association of Teachers of English Linguistics, Literature and Education (ELITE Association) in Indonesia [MoU manuscript].

Editor and Administration Address:

Department of English Language EducationFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Palangka Raya, Jalan G. Obos Komplek Islamic Centre Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Postal Code 73111, Email: jefl@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, Website: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/jefl

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

stats View My Stats

Flag Counter