Insān Ilahī as The Main Concept of Mulla Sadra’s Transcendental Human Existences

Nurul Khair, Wa Ode Zainab Zilullah Toresano

Abstract


This writing is library research on Mulla Sadra’s thought concerning the concept of insān ilahī as the main concept of transcendental existence discourse in response to western humanism paradigm because it consider vanishing the immaterial domain in human self. This writing is aimed to explain about perfection, happiness, and freedom as the value and main purpose of human existence in Islamic Philosophy civilization based on Mulla Sadra master piece al-Hikmah al-Mutāliyah fī al- Asfār al-Aqliyyah al-Arba’ah. By using descriptive-philosopical method we come to conclusion that the concept of insān ilahī in Mulla Sadra viewpoint were discussed and observed through transcendental discourse. Soul in Mulla Sadra view is immaterial substance which always went through the process of perfection in human existence. Besides knowing that there is immaterial substance in human existence, the concept of Mulla Sadra insān ilahī has also fix many falsity of western philosopher in describing the value and main purpose of man based on material awareness. The result is, individual viewing perfection and potential actualization in him depends on the things which based on logic to view the object of perception based upon his physical existence in reality. The dependence of existence toward material things describes the perfection which gained by individual partially. The result of this writing is to offer a new point of view in understanding the unlimited value and purpose of human existence toward particular paradigms through the concept of Mulla Sadra insān ilahī as the main concept of transcendental existence in Islamic Philosophical Civilization.

Keyword: Existence, West, Islam


Full Text:

PDF

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 425 times | PDF view : 187 times

References


Achmadi. Filsafat Umum. 2010. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.

Al-Ahsai, Syekh Ahmad Ibn Zain Al-Din. 2005. Syarah al-Arsīyah. Beirut: Muassasah Syam Hajar.

Al-Allaf, Mashhad. 2006. The Essensial Ideas of Islamic Philosophy. USA: Edwin Meller Press.

Al-Jili, Syekh Abdul Karim Ibn Ibrahim. 2005. Insan Kamil. Surabaya: Pustaka Hikmah Perdana.

Amiri, Asgari Sulaymani. 1999. “The Principle of Presupposition and Categorical Existence: Qualification of Quidity by Existence.” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Angels, Frederick. 2007. Tentang Das Kapital Marx. Bandung: Bed’s Renaissance.

Azra, Azyumardi. 2008. Ensklopedia Tasawuf. Bandung: Angkasa.

Baalbaki, Rohi. 2005. Al-Mawrid: A Modern Arabic-English Dictionary. Beirut: Dar El-Ilm LilMalayin.

Bahesti, Ahmad. 1999. “The Necessary Being’s Knowledge in Mulla Sadra’s View.” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Bennet, Jonathan. 2001. Learning from Six Philosophers: Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burrell, David B. 1999. “Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) and Mulla Sadra Shirazi (980/1572–1050/1640) and the Primacy of Esse/Wujûd in Philosophical Theology” 8 (2): 207–2019.

Copleston, Frederick. 1985. A History of Philosophy: Hobbes to Hume. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell.

Daftari, Abdulaziz. 2010. “Mulla Sadra and the mind-body problem: A critical assessment of Sadra’s approach to the dichotomy of soul and spirit.” Doctoral, Durham University. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/506/.

Dibaji, Muhammad Ali. 1999. “Soul-Body Relation as a Philosophical Model of God-Nature Relation in Mulla Sadrā and Leibniz Philosophies.” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Engels, Frederick. 1995. Ludwig Feuerbach and The End of Classical German Philosophy. Stuttgart: Vorlag Von Dietz.

Fadlallah, Suheir. 2012. Falsafah al-Insan fi al-Islam. Qom: Al-Maktabah Al-Falsafah.

Fakhri, Majid. 1997. Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Mysticism. Oxford: One World.

Gazo, Ernest Wolf. 1999. “The Tranformation of Substance in Whitehead and Sadrā.” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Gharawiyan, Muhsin. 1999. “Is Trans-Substantial Motion Intensive (Istidādi)?” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Haidari, Sayyid Kamal. 2011. Buhusul fi ‘Ilmi al-Nafs al-Falsafah. Tehran: Massah al-Imam al-Jawad Lil-Fikri wa As-tsaqafah.

Haq, Muhammad Abdul. 2013. Mulla Sadra Concept of Subtantial Motion. Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute.

Hardiman, F Budi. 2004. Filsafat Modern: Dari Machiavelli sampai Nietzsche. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Hossein, Sheykh Rezaee, dan Hashemi Mohammad Mansur. 2009. “KNOWLEDGE AS A MODE OF BEING: MULLA SADRA’S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE.” THE JOURNAL OF SAPIENTIAL WISDOM AND PHILOSOPHY (SOPHIA PERENNIS) 6 (4): 19–42.

Kalbikani, Ali Rabbani. 1998. Īdhāhu al-Hikmah fi Syarah Bidāyah al-Hikmah. Beirut: Dār al-Tiyār al-Jadīd.

Kalin, Ibrahim. 2000. “Knowledge as the Unity of the Intellect and the Object of Intellection in Islamic Philosophy: A Historical Survey from Plato to Mulla Sadra.” Transcendent Philosophy: An International Journal for Comparative Philosophy and Mysticism 1 (1).

———. 2010. Knowledge in Later Islamic Philosophy: Mulla Sadra on Existence, Intellect, and Intuition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kamal, Muhammad. 1988. Mulla Sadra’s Trancendent Philosophy. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

———. 2009. “Rethinking Being: From Suhravardi to Mulla Sadra.” Journal of Shia Islamic Studies 2 (4). /scholarlywork/315397-rethinking-being--from-suhravardi-to-mulla-sadra.

Khaeroni, Cahaya. 2014. “Epistemologi Rasionalisme Rene Descartes dan Relevansinya terhadap Pendidikan Islam”. Lampung: Jurnal Didaktika Religia 2 (2).

Khamaeni, Sayyed Muhammad. 2004. Mulla Sadra’s Trancendent Philosophy. Tehran: SIPRIn.

Khomeini, Sayyed Muhammad. 2004. Insan al-Illahiyah. Jakarta: Pustaka Zahra.

Lamont, Corliss. 1997. The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Humanist Press.

McNight, Andrew. 2010. “A Pragmatic and Pedagogically Minded Revalution of Historical Materialism”. Alahama: Journal for Critical Educatin Policy Studies .

Munawir, Ahmad Warson. 1997. Al-Munawir: Kamus Arab-Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Progresif.

Mutahhari, Murtadha. 1983. Mukadimah Bar Jahān Baina Islāmi. Qom: Madrasah Penelitian Qom.

Nabil, Mohammad. 2013. “Ludwig A. Feuerbach (1804-1872): Sang Peniup Terompet Ateisme.” ILMU USHULUDDIN 1 (6): 527–36. https://doi.org/10.15408/ilmu-ushuluddin.v1i6.1028.

Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. 1975. Islam and the Plight of Modern Man. Chocago: KAZI.

———. 1990. Man and Nature: The Spiritual Crisis of Modern Man. London: Unwin Paperback.

Nietzche, Frederich. 1997. Human All Too Human. Edinburgh: Morisson & GIBB Limited.

Niiniluoto, Ilkka. 2004. Handbook of Epistemology. Berlin: Springer Science and Businnes Media.

Palmer, Donlad. 2001. Looking at Philosophy: The Unbearable heaviness of Philosophy Made Lighter. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Parsaniya, Hamid. 2006. Existence and the Fall: Spiritual Anthropology of Islam. London: ICAS Press.

Pusat Bahasa Depdiknas. 2005. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Rezai, Muhammad. 1999. “The Theory of the Correspondence in the Transcendent Theosophy.” Dalam . Tehran: SPRIn.

Rizvi, Sajjad. 2009. Mulla Sadra and Metaphysics. London: Routledge.

Rumi, Jalaluddin. 2014. Fihi Ma Fihi. Yogyakarta: FORUM.

Russell, Bertrand. 2016. Sejarah Filsafat Barat. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sadra, Mulla. 1941. al-Syawāhid al-Rubūbiyah fī al-Manāhij al-Sulūkīyah. Qom: Markas Nasir Dānesygoh.

———. 1999. Mafātīh al-Ghaib. Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Ta’rikh al-‘Arabi.

———. 2002. Al-Hikmatuh al-Mutālīyah fī al-asfār al-aqliyah al-arba’a. Beirut: Dār al-Ehia al-Tourath al-Arabi.

Sartre, Jean Paul. 1956. Being and Nothingness. New York: Philosophical Library.

———. 1973. Existenstialism and Humanism. London: Eyre Methuen LTD.

Semiawan, Conny. R. 2010. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: PT. Gransindo.

Sina, Ibn. 1952. Ahwal Al-Nafs. Kairo: Dar Ihya’ al-Kutub al-Arabiyah.

———. 1960. al-Isyārāti wa al-Tanbihat. Kairo: Dar Al-Maarif.

———. 1998. al-Mabdā wa al-ma’ād. Tehran: Tehran Universitas Press.

Skribekk, Gunnar, dan Nils Gilje. 2000. A History of Western Thought: From Ancient Greece to the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge.

Syariati, Ali. 1996. Marxism Philosophy and Economic. Bandung: Pustaka Hidayah.

Thabathabai, Sayyid Husain. 1997. Bidayah Al-Hikmah. Qom: Muassah al-Mārif al-Islāmiyyah.

Thabathabai, Sayyid Husain. 2000. Nihāyah al-Hikmah. Qom: Muassah al-Nasri al-Islāmī.

———. 2011. Ushul Al-Falsafah. Beirut: Beirut: Dār al-Jawād Imam.

Trigg, Roger. 1999. Ideas of Human Nature: Historical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Walid, Kholid. 2012. Perjalanan Jiwa Menuju Akhirat: Filsafat Eskatologi Mulla Sadra. Jakarta: Sadra Press.

Wijaya, Daya Negri. 2016. “Kontrak Sosial Menurut Thomas Hobbes Dan John Locke.” Jurnal Sosiologi Pendidikan Humanis 1 (2): 183–93.

Wright, George Henrik Von. 1977. What is The Humanism? Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.

Zarkasyi, Hamid Fahmy. 2009. “The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra Being a Summary of His Book Al-Hikmah al-Muta’aliyah Fi al-Asfar al-‘Aqliyyah al-Arba’Ah.” TSAQAFAH 5 (2): 325–51. https://doi.org/10.21111/tsaqafah.v5i2.131.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.23971/njppi.v4i2.1927

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 425 times
PDF - 187 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-Berbagi Serupa 4.0 Internasional.
 

Editor and Administration Address

NALAR: Jurnal Peradaban dan Pemikiran Islam
Fakultas Ushuluddin, Adab dan Dakwah IAIN Palangka Raya
Jl. G. Obos (Kompleks Islamic Center) No. 24, Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia

Phone: (0536) 3226356
Website: http://e-journal.iain-palangkaraya.ac.id/index.php/nalar/
Email: jurnal-nalar@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, mualimin@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id, heri.setiawan@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id

 

Flag Counter