Transformation of Arabic Assessment in Indonesia: Conventional Assessment Toward Digital Assessment

Nur Fuadi Rahman, Muhammad Ihsanuddin Masdar, Aulia Mustika Ilmiani, Faizal Habibie, Soukaina Samdouni


Since 1960, digital assessment has been developed and implemented in foreign language assessments, but there are still few studies that discuss Arabic digital assessment because most of them follow a traditional paper and pencil assessment. The study investigates the transformation of Arabic assessment in Indonesia from conventional to digital. It further describes the factors influencing the transformation. This study employs a qualitative-case study involving Indonesian Islamic State Universities. Data collection techniques used are interviews and observations. Then the data is analyzed interactively with data reduction, data display and conclusion. The results show that the transformation of the Arabic language assessment has begun in 2016 at UIN Maliki Malang but it faced constraints regarding its TOAFL implementation. Implementing the digital Arabic assessment is comprehensively done during the online learning policy. Two factors influence the shift in Arabic assessment culture: the rapid development of the 4.0 Industrial Revolution and the COVID-19 pandemic. There are two models of digital assessment: web-based assessment and mobile-based assessment


digital assessment; e-assessment Arabic; computer-based assessment; mobile-based assessment

Full Text:


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 357 times | PDF view : 272 times


Alderson, J. C. (2009). Test review: Test of English as a Foreign LanguageTM: Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT®). Language Testing, 26(4), 621–631.

Al-Smadi, M., & Gütl, C. (2008). Past, Present and Future of e-Assessment: Towards a Flexible e-Assessment System.

Arpaci, I. (2016). Understanding and predicting students’ intention to use mobile cloud storage services. Computers in Human Behaviour, pp. 58, 150–157.

Arthur, W., Doverspike, D., Muñoz, G. J., Taylor, J. E., & Carr, A. E. (2014). The Use of Mobile Devices in High-stakes Remotely Delivered Assessments and Testing. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 22(2), 113–123.

Avraamidou, L. (2006). Exploring the influence of web-based portfolio development on learning to teach elementary science. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education Journal, 14, 178–205.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7–74.

Bouzidi, L., & Jaillet, A. (2009). Can Online Peer Assessment be Trusted?. Educational Technology & Society, 12, 257–268.

Burstein, J., Frase, L. T., Ginther, A., & Grant, L. (1996). Technologies for Language Assessment. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 16, 240–260.

Chang, C.-C., Tseng, K.-H., Chou, P.-N., & Chen, Y.-H. (2011). Reliability and validity of Web-based portfolio peer assessment: A case study for a senior high school’s students taking computer courses. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1306–1316.

Cousin, G. (2005). Case Study Research. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 29(3), 421–427.

Craven, P. (2009). History and challenges of e-assessment: The "Cambridge Approach" perspective–e-assessment research and development 1989 to 2009. Cambridge Assessment, pp. 1–11.

Crisp, G. (2007). The e-Assessment Handbook.

Croft, A. C., Danson, M., Dawson, B. R., & Ward, J. P. (2001). Experiences of using computer-assisted assessment in engineering mathematics. Computers & Education, 37(1), 53–66.

Fifty Years of Language Assessment—Davies—- Major Reference Works—Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 30, 2021, from

Gebril, A., & Taha?Thomure, H. (2013). Assessing Arabic. In The Companion to Language Assessment (pp. 1779–1789). American Cancer Society.

Inglehart, R. (2018). Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton University Press.

Learn Arabic Online with ArabicOnline—Award-winning Interactive Courses. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2021, from

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. SAGE Publications.

Mulenga, E., & Marbán, J. M. (2020). Is COVID-19 the Gateway for Digital Learning in Mathematics Education? 12, ep269.

Nguyen, D. M., Hsieh, Y.-C., & Allen, G. D. (2006). The Impact of Web-Based Assessment and Practice on Students’ Mathematics Learning Attitudes. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 25(3), 251–279.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2013). Student achievement in paper, computer/web and mobile-based assessment. 8.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2016). The impact of paper-based, computer-based and mobile-based self-assessment on students’ science motivation and achievement. Computers in Human Behaviour, 55, 1241–1248.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2017). Mobile-based assessment: Investigating the factors that influence behavioral intention to use. Computers & Education, 109, 56–73.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2018). Mobile-based assessment: A literature review of publications in major refereed journals from 2009 to 2018. Computers & Education, 125, 101–119.

Rahman, N. F., Dakhoir, A., Hasan, A. M., Ihsani, H. N., & Khair, N. (2021). Web-Based Assessment Alternative for Arabic Online Exam. Izdihar : Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature, 4(2), 179–194.

Romero, C., Ventura, S., & Bra, P. M. E. D. (2009). Using mobile and web-based computerized tests to evaluate university students. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 17(4), 435–447.

Saudi Electronic University. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2022, from

Scherer, R., & Siddiq, F. (2015). The Big-Fish–Little-Pond-Effect revisited: Do different types of assessments matter?. Computers & Education, 80, 198–210.

Setemen, K. (2010). Pengembangan Evaluasi Pembelajaran Online. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 43(3), Article 3.

Shedeed, H. A., & Abdel, H. (2011). A new intelligent methodology for computer-based assessment of short answer questions based on a new enhanced Soundex phonetic algorithm for Arabic language. International Journal of Computer Applications, 34(10), 40–47.

Zareva, A. (2005). What Is New in the New TOEFL-iBT 2006 Test Format?. E-FLT: Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2(2).

Zurqoni, Z., Retnawati, H., Rahmatullah, S., Djidu, H., & Apino, E. (2020). Has Arabic Language Learning Been Successfully Implemented?. International Journal of Instruction, 13, 715–730.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Fuadi Rahman, Muhammad Ihsanuddin Masdar, Aulia Mustika Ilmiani, Faizal Habibie, Soukaina Samdouni

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Al-Ta'rib : Jurnal Ilmiah Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Arab IAIN Palangka Raya is published by Arabic Education Departement (PBA), the Faculty of Education and Teacher Training (FTIK), State Islamic Institut (IAIN) of Palangka Raya in partnership with IMLA (Association of Arabic Lecturers).

Editor and Administration Address:

Arabic Education Departement (PBA), the Faculty of Education and Teacher Training (FTIK), State Islamic Institut (IAIN) of Palangka Raya, Jalan G. Obos Komplek Islamic Centre Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia, Postal Code 73111.Email: [email protected]/[email protected], Website:

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter

View My Stats